Kita dan Bahasa Indonesia: Membendung Hegemoni Global

Bahasa diciptakan oleh sejarah. Dengan kata lain, bahasa bisa hilang dari sejarah. Demikian halnya dengan bahasa Indonesia yang kini eksistensinya dicemaskan.

Sebenarnya, bahasa Indonesia di UUD 1945 tercantum sebagai bahasa nasional. Untuk itu selama undang-undang tersebut tidak diamandemen dengan digantikan bahasa yang lain, dan media, koran, serta institusi pendidikan tetap memakai bahasa Indonesia, eksistensi bahasa Indonesia akan selalu ada.

Tentu terlalu sederhana apabila kita memandang persoalan bahasa ini sebagai aspek legalitas dan soal alat komunikasi seperti itu saja. Hal ini juga terkait soal politik, ekonomi dan kebudayaan.

Bukti dari munculnya bahasa Indonesia sebagai pengganti bahasa kolonial tidak hanya dipandang sebagai kebutuhan identitas nasional, melainkan juga orientasi kebudayaan founding fathers kita ketika itu sehingga memunculkan sistem hukum, politik dan ekonomi yang baru di tanah air demi kebaikan masyarakat luas.

Singkatnya bahasa Indonesia hadir sebagai reorientasi sistem politik, ekonomi, sosial dan budaya Indonesia.

Kini arus global dan teknologi membawa budaya dan bahasa lain ke tanah air. Hal ini  memberi dampak orientasi generasi muda pada pandangan kosmopolitan. Apalagi suasana pertandingan global saat ini bukan lagi soal menjajah wilayah, melainkan menjajah hati masyarakat luas. Sebab, kini neo-imperialisme berjalan melalui jaring-jaring kapital yang sangat halus.

Pihak mana yang berhasil menggaet massa, pihak itulah yang memiliki kuasa. Dari sudut itu, persoalan eksistensi bahasa Indonesia saat ini perlu dipahami sebagai perebutan kuasa dan orientasi hidup generasi muda. Sebab, di titik inilah sirkuit kapital dan hegemoni global bermain.

Di sisi lain, menolak hubungan global jelas pemikiran sempit. Tentu kita perlu membuka pintu terhadap hubungan bilateral maupun multilateral Indonesia dengan negara-negara lain. Hubungan tersebut mengandaikan pergaulan sehat saling menguntungkan atau yang kita harapkan keuntungan lebih besar di pihak Indonesia.

Namun, yang terjadi justru invasi kebudayaan negara lain ke tanah air, sehingga masyarakat Indonesia sekadar sebagai konsumen negara lain. Tidak ada negara yang mau kedaulatannya diinjak-injak.

Pintu rumah memang terbuka, tetapi kamar utama tidak boleh dimasuki. Dan, kamar utama itu adalah kebudayaan, lebih spesifik lagi bahasa Indonesia.

Atas dasar itu, tulisan ini berupaya 1.) terlebih dahulu melihat bagaimana kuasa global bekerja, 2.) menerangkan nasionalisme dan bahasa Indonesia sebagai faktor resisten terhadap hegemoni sirkuit kapital, kemudian 3.) mengajukan tawaran implementasi UU Pemajuan Kebudayaan yang rumusan formilnya telah disahkan tahun 2017.

Bahasa, Kuasa dan Invasi Kebudayaan

Kekuasaan itu absurd. Dia menawan sekaligus menjijikkan. Dia adalah kebaikan dan kejahatan itu sendiri. Dia dikejar sekaligus ditolak. Meskipun begitu, hasrat terhadap kekuasaan telah berusia sepanjang peradaban.

Karena itu, sejak dahulu para pemikir berusaha melacak bagaimana kuasa bekerja. Socrates melihat kekuasaan dari retorika kaum sofis. Smith memandang kekuasaan sebagai belenggu aktivitas ekonomi. Kekuasaan bagi Marx adalah surplus kapital. Kekuasaan bagi Foucault tidak menetap, melainkan tersebar berelasi di setiap rezim kebenaran.

Bagi Simone de Beauvoir, privilese kuasa laki-laki membuat perempuan sekadar second (subordinat). Kaum posmodern seperti Lyotard memandang kekuasaan adalah narasi besar yang menenggelamkan narasi lain. Dari semua itu garis besarnya, yakni mereka menerangkan kekuasaan sekaligus menolaknya demi kebebasan.           

Bahasa lebih rumit lagi. Bahasa adalah tangan panjang kekuasaan, sekaligus menghasilkan kekuasaan. Bahkan bahasa itu segi ontologis dari kekuasaan. Siapa yang memiliki bahasa, ia memiliki kuasa.

Cara kerjanya seperti kekuasaan, bahasa disusun hierarkis, dikotomis dan hegemonis. Hasilnya, mereka yang subordinat diinjak-injak secara eksploitatif.

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